Inflammation
& autoimmunity

Inflammation Health Screening

€230

Complete blood count

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA)*

Cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (CCP)

Rheumatic factor

Uric acid

CRP

ESR

Inflammation Health Screening

This Health screening includes

Complete blood count analyses size, shape, colour and quantity of the white and red cells and the platelets in our blood. A CBC is frequently used to check for anaemia, blood disorders, infection, inflammation and several other disorders.

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA)* is a primary blood test used to detect an immune response by antibodies targeting components of the nucleus of a cell, hence the name antinuclear and that helps to rule out some other diseases. The antibodies may be present in higher than normal numbers in the most prevalent autoimmune diseases. However, a positive test doesn’t imply you have an autoimmune disease, because particularly women older than 65 can have a positive ANA with no disease and occasionally, some drugs can affect the result of the ANA test. Therefore a positive ANA test requires that the blood is tested for the presence of more specific antinuclear antibodies that may help to establish if a particular autoimmune disease is present when interpreted in context with symptoms and signs.

Cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (CCP): This test detects and measures antibodies towards the cyclic citrullinated peptide. When this peptide is produced at a higher rate in the joins it can trigger an immune response resulting in the production of autoantibodies against the cyclic citrullinated peptides in the joints. This testing is particularly useful in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis at early stages and in identifying people who are likely to have severe disease. However, its sensitivity is low, and a negative result does not exclude disease.

Rheumatic factor test detects and measures antibodies in the blood against a portion of their own antibodies. Its presence is useful as an indicator of inflammatory and autoimmune activity. It is detected in over 75% of people with rheumatoid arthritis but also in other conditions including persistent infections and chronic diseases, other autoimmune diseases and in a small percentage of healthy individuals (1-5%).

Uric acid: There is a positive association between UA and several proinflammatory markers; whether uric acid is a marker of pro-inflammatory state or causes inflammation ‘per se’ remains uncertain. Some reports point out that uric acid produces an inflammatory response through activation of a series of inflammatory reactions.

C- Reactive Protein (CRP) is a type of protein produced by the liver and its levels can be measured in blood. Its level increases imply that something is going on, especially when you have certain diseases which cause inflammation. The test is used for the detection and evaluation of inflammatory disorders and associated diseases, infection and tissue injury. When their level is raised further tests will be needed to clarify exactly what that is. hsCRP- highly sensitive CRP- identifies low levels of inflammation and it is used as an aid in the assessment of the risk of future coronary heart disease.

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a test that measures the rate at which the red cells separate from plasma. In inflammation certain protein levels increase accelerating the speed at which the red cells fall. So, a high ESR means that an inflammatory process is going on somewhere in the body but the cause is unclear and further tests may be needed to clarify this. It is used to help diagnose conditions associated with acute and chronic inflammation, including infections, tumours, and autoimmune diseases. It is used to monitor specific inflammatory disorders. It is not usually possible to make a diagnosis of a certain condition just from a raised ESR or CRP level. Generally, levels of ESR increases with age and are higher in females.

Reflex test: *When the result of your antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is positive, it is appropriate to determine the specificity of the antibodies that have produced this positive result. Anti dsDNA antibodies and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) panel will automatically be run as a reflex test on your sample. This will help diagnose and distinguish between different autoimmune disorders.  These extra tests are at an additional charge of €155.

The word inflammation comes from the latin “inflammatio” from the Latin prefix “in” meaning inside and flamma meaning fire. This name was given because when inflammation occurs as a local response to an injury or damage, it causes pain, heat, swelling, redness and loss of function of the affected area. The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of injury, clear out necrotic cells and damaged tissues and to initiate tissue healing and repair.

Inflammation is part of the immune response of our body for self-protection and defence from injury and damage produced by pathogens, irritants, or something that may turn out to be harmful. This response is characterised by the participation of many different immune cells and the release of substances. Inflammatory reactions evoke a battery of effector cells and molecules that act to remove the harmful agent. These reactions are usually self-limiting and resolve rapidly which is essential to remain healthy and maintain stability in the body (homeostasis).

Under certain circumstances, the inflammatory response can become chronic with damaging effects. When inflammation can cause further inflammation it may become chronic with the loss of the normal immune homeostasis. These chronic responses can last for years or even a lifetime in varying degrees of severity and activity. Autoimmunity and inflammation are underlying causes of the chronic inflammatory diseases.

Leeuwenhoek offers lab testing including basic laboratory testing used to screen and monitor autoimmune diseases as well as test for inflammation.

Tests on blood 

Unless you are diabetic, we recommend that you fast (not eat any food) for at least 8-10 hours. Do drink water while fasting and continue with any prescribed medications following your doctor instructions. Ideally, you should be on a stable diet for two weeks prior to the taking of the blood sample.

Please note that taking certain medications that can affect the test results. If you have any question, contact us and we will let you know how to prepare for your blood tests.

A small amount of blood will be drawn by trained staff from a vein in your arm using a needle. The procedure is quick and easy. Rarely, some people may feel faint or dizzy while having the blood taken and you may need to lie down to help you to feel better. The procedure may cause some minor discomfort and a small bruise may develop in the area where the needle was inserted. Press over the site where the needle was inserted, keeping your arm straight to reduce likelihood of bruise formation. If you develop redness or inflammation in the same area, seek your doctor for advice.

A laboratory test result is produced after a scientific analysis done on a sample to assess an individual health status.

An abnormal finding may (but not necessarily) indicate a problem that needs to be addressed. We recommend that any abnormal result should promptly be consulted with your GP. Your doctor will evaluate the test results in the context of an overall clinical picture that takes into consideration your age, gender, ethnicity, family history, signs, symptoms, etc.

If you want to learn more how the results of your laboratory test help your doctor in understanding your health status, and in providing you with the right treatment; check labtestsonline.org, a public resource on lab tests that is produced by AACC, a global scientific and medical professional organization dedicated to clinical laboratory science and its application to healthcare.You can also visit http://patient.info for information about health conditions. Please note that this information should not be a substitute for a consultation with your doctor.

Please contact us, we will be happy to clarify any questions pertaining to your test results.

Autoimmunity Health Screening
€355

Complete blood count

Rheumatic factor

Cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (CCP)

Anti-Nuclear antibodies (ANA)

Anti dsDNA antibodies

Anti ENA antibodies

Anti Mitochondrial antibodies (AMA)

Anti Neutrophil Cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Autoimmunity Health Screening

This Health screening includes:

Complete blood count analyses size, shape, colour and quantity of the white and red cells and the platelets in our blood. A CBC is frequently used to check for anaemia, blood disorders, infection, inflammation and several other disorders.

Rheumatic factor test detects and measures antibodies in the blood against a portion of their own antibodies. Its presence is useful as an indicator of inflammatory and autoimmune activity. It is detected in over 75% of people with rheumatoid arthritis but it is also found in other conditions including persistent infections, chronic diseases and other autoimmune diseases. In addition, it’s present in a small percentage of healthy individuals (1-5%).

Cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (CCP): This test detects and measures antibodies towards the cyclic citrullinated peptide. When this peptide is produced at a higher rate in the joints it can trigger an immune response resulting in the production of autoantibodies against the cyclic citrullinated peptides in the joints. This testing is particularly useful in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis at early stages and in identifying people who are likely to have severe disease. However, its sensitivity is low, and a negative result does not exclude disease.

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a primary blood test used to detect an immune response by antibodies targeting components of the nucleus of a cell, hence the name antinuclear and that helps to rule out some other diseases. The antibodies may be present in higher than normal numbers in the most prevalent autoimmune diseases. However, a positive test doesn’t imply you have an autoimmune disease, because particularly women older than 65 can have a positive ANA with no disease and occasionally, some drugs can affect the result of the ANA test. Therefore a positive ANA test requires that the blood is tested for the presence of more specific antinuclear antibodies that may help to establish if a particular autoimmune disease is present when interpreted in context with symptoms and signs.

Anti-dsDNA antibodies: These are specific autoantibodies that target nuclear components such as the genetic material (double stranded DNA), causing organ and tissue damage. It is associated with lupus (SLE).

Anti-Extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) antibodies  panel consist of 4 or 6 antibodies targeting specific substances within cell nuclei and are often used to help diagnose and distinguish between different autoimmune disorders.

Anti Mitochondrial Antibodies: The presence of these antibodies in the blood may indicate the presence or the risk of developing an autoimmune disease causing liver damage. This damage results from an immune response towards hepatocytes or cholangiocytes.

Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA) are a group of autoantibodies, towards antigens in the cytoplasm of two types of white blood cells called neutrophil granulocytes and monocytes. They are detected in blood in a number of autoimmune disorders, but their detection is particularly associated with systemic vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels).

 

Immunity’s role is to protect us from injury and damage produced by pathogens, irritants, or something harmful. Our immunity has both nonspecific (innate) and specific (acquired) components that work together. The innate immunity is our first line of defence until an acquired immune response develops, and refers to the basic resistance to a harmful agent that an individual is born with. Acquired immunity is capable of specifically recognising and selectively eliminating foreign organisms and agents; this immune response is specific and presents memory. Antibodies are a component of the acquired immunity.

The response of the immune system against self-components like cells and tissues is called autoimmunity. Autoimmune diseases are characterised by the body’s immune system which mistakenly recognises something specific in the body cells and tissues as harmful and develops an auto-immune response to attack it, causing damage to itself. These diseases can be divided into two broad categories: i) An immune response directed against a single organ or gland (such as Hashimoto thyroiditis, Crohn’s disease, pernicious anaemia, type 1 diabetes mellitus, myasthenia gravis) and ii) a systemic response directed toward a broad range of organs and tissues (such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus). More than eighty conditions have been characterised by an autoimmune response which affects 5%-7% of the population, commonly affecting more women than men.

Tests on blood 

Unless you are diabetic, we recommend that you fast (not eat any food) for at least 8-10 hours. Do drink water while fasting and continue with any prescribed medications following your doctor instructions. Ideally, you should be on a stable diet for two weeks prior to the taking of the blood sample.

Please note that taking certain medications that can affect the test results. If you have any question, contact us and we will let you know how to prepare for your blood tests.

A small amount of blood will be drawn by trained staff from a vein in your arm using a needle. The procedure is quick and easy. Rarely, some people may feel faint or dizzy while having the blood taken and you may need to lie down to help you to feel better. The procedure may cause some minor discomfort and a small bruise may develop in the area where the needle was inserted. Press over the site where the needle was inserted, keeping your arm straight to reduce likelihood of bruise formation. If you develop redness or inflammation in the same area, seek your doctor for advice.

A laboratory test result is produced after a scientific analysis done on a sample to assess an individual health status.

An abnormal finding may (but not necessarily) indicate a problem that needs to be addressed. We recommend that any abnormal result should promptly be consulted with your GP. Your doctor will evaluate the test results in the context of an overall clinical picture that takes into consideration your age, gender, ethnicity, family history, signs, symptoms, etc.

If you want to learn more how the results of your laboratory test help your doctor in understanding your health status, and in providing you with the right treatment; check labtestsonline.org, a public resource on lab tests that is produced by AACC, a global scientific and medical professional organization dedicated to clinical laboratory science and its application to healthcare.You can also visit t http://patient.info for information about health conditions. Please note that this information should not be a substitute for a consultation with your doctor.

Please contact us, we will be happy to clarify any questions pertaining to your test results.

Book here your appointment today

Approved by Irish Life Health

Check with your provider if our outpatient service is covered under your plan.

 

 

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Approved by Irish Life Health.
Check with your provider if our outpatient service is covered under your plan.