Total Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
Total Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
[-2] pro PSA
Index PHI (Prostate Health Index)
Prostate Health Screening
Basic Screening includes:
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal, abnormal as well as by cancerous prostate cells. Higher PSA levels can sometimes be a sign of prostate cancer; but often non-cancerous reasons like recent urinary tract infection, infection and injury of prostate, ejaculation or an enlarged prostate (associated with age) can raise PSA levels. This means that total PSA testing often suggests that cancer is present when there is none. On the contrary, a small number of men could have prostate cancer and have a normal PSA level.
PSA is found free and complexed bound to other proteins. The free PSA test measures the percentage of the total PSA that is not bound to proteins. The free PSA/total PSA ratio helps to assess the risk of prostate cancer in patients with borderline or moderately increased total PSA. High total PSA levels and lower percentages of free PSA/total PSA ratio are associated with higher risks of prostate cancer.
Urinalysis is a set of chemical, microscopic and macroscopic analysis that can detect some common diseases. It may be used to screen for and/or help diagnose conditions such as urinary tract infections, kidney disorders, liver problems, diabetes or other metabolic conditions.
The comprehensive package applies when total prostatic-specific antigen (PSA total) results are in the 4 to 10 ng/mL range.
[-2]proPSA is a premature form and a fraction of free PSA. The combined use of total PSA, free PSA and proPSA is used to calculate and to more accurately assess PCa risk.
Prostate Health Index – a mathematical formula to more accurately assess the risk of prostate cancer using total PSA, free PSA and proPSA. The PHI is used as a guidance in distinguishing prostate cancer from benign conditions in men 50 years of age and older.
In Ireland, prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in males. Although PCa can be a serious disease, particularly most of the old men diagnosed with PCa, do not die from it but with it. This is because some PCa remain small, grows slowly and do not spread beyond the prostate.
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein commonly used biomarker for PCa. Total PSA on its own is not a very good screening test. It is reported that more than 50% of men with total PSA over 4.0 ng/ml are negative on initial biopsy. Prostate biopsy, a procedure that may have risks and sometimes uncomfortable and long-term side effects, is the only way to determine which men have PCa.
In the past few years, a number of PSA protein types (isoforms) have been identified and are approved for use in the screening of PCa. The combined use of this isoforms with total PSA improves the accuracy and early detection of PCa. These blood tests include free PSA, a non-protein bound form of PSA. The free PSA/ total PSA ratio increases the ability of a test to correctly identify men who should have follow-up prostate biopsy. proPSA is another isoform which corresponds to a pre-mature form and a fraction of free PSA. The combined use of total PSA, free PSA and proPSA have been combined in a mathematical formula called Prostatic Health Index (PHI) to more accurately assess PCa risk.
Fasting is not required for the blood test. Drink plenty of water before the blood drawing as being well hydrated makes the blood drawing procedure easier.
Ejaculation can raise PSA levels in blood; therefore we recommend abstaining from sexual activity at least two days before a PSA test. Please note that an active urinary tract infection can cause a rise in your PSA levels. If you have any question, contact us and we will let you know how to prepare for your blood tests.
A small amount of blood will be drawn by trained staff from a vein in your arm using a needle. The procedure is quick and easy. Rarely, some people may feel faint or dizzy while having the blood taken and you may need to lie down to help you to feel better. The procedure may cause some minor discomfort and a small bruise may develop in the area where the needle was inserted. Press over the site where the needle was inserted, keeping your arm straight to reduce likelihood of bruise formation . If you develop redness or inflammation in the same area, seek your doctor for advice.
A urine sample is required for this test which should be taken first thing in the morning. We can provide you with a container. Please write your name, date of birth, and date and time of the sample taken on the container and bring it to us for examination.
An abnormal finding may (but not necessarily) indicate a problem that needs to be addressed. We recommend that any abnormal result should promptly be consulted with your GP. Your doctor will evaluate the test results in the context of an overall clinical picture that takes into consideration your age, gender, ethnicity, family history, signs, symptoms, etc.
If you want to learn more how the results of your laboratory test help your doctor in understanding your health status, and in providing you with the right treatment; check http://labtestsonline.org, a public resource on lab tests that is produced by AACC, a global scientific and medical professional organization dedicated to clinical laboratory science and its application to healthcare. You can also visit http://patient.info for information about health conditions. Please note that this information should not be a substitute for consultation with your doctor.
Please contact us, we will be happy to clarify any questions pertaining to your test results.
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