Bone Health

Bone Health Screening





Total proteins albumin and globulins


25-hydroxy vitamin D 

Parathyroid hormone

Alkaline phosphatase

Bone Health Screening

The Bone health screening tests are on blood samples and measure

Calcium, magnesium and phosphate are minerals essential for the production and function of bone. Their measurements help to screen for conditions relating to bone mineral deposition and resorption, intestinal absorption and renal excretion. These minerals are also vital for the proper functioning of muscles, nerves and the communication between our body cells.

Total proteins with its classes: albumin and globulins. Around 40% of the calcium in the blood is bound to proteins, primarily albumin. As a result, the total serum calcium concentration needs to be adjusted for the albumin concentration.

Iron is a mineral used in oxygen transport and participates in many enzymatic systems in the body, with important roles in collagen synthesis and vitamin D activation and deactivation. Its deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in industrialised countries. The link between iron and bone health comes from observations in iron overload patients who suffered bone loss and in the chronic iron deficiency that increases the risk of osteoporosis. It is thought that iron is coupled to the activation and deactivation of the cells involved in bone resorption and bone formation.

25-hydroxy vitamin D is a stable form of vitamin D, a hormone important for absorbing and regulating calcium and phosphorus required for formation and maintenance of healthy bones. Low Vitamin D levels may mean nutritional deficiency, malabsorption or lack of exposure to sunlight.

Parathyroid hormone is secreted by the parathyroid glands with a primary role in the bone metabolism in response to low levels of calcium in the blood. PTH promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphate from the intestine, increases bone resorption, reduces the loss of calcium through urine excretion and increases the synthesis of vitamin D.

Alkaline Phosphatases (ALP) are a group of enzymes found primarily the liver and bone. There are also small amounts produced in the intestines, the placenta, the kidneys, the lungs and the red cells. The bone enzyme is active in the process of the bone formation where it helps in the removal of phosphorus which in turn enables the deposition of calcium in the newly formed bone like a stack of building blocks. An elevated level of alkaline phosphatases can occur in some bone conditions and can be elevated during periods of bone growth such as in children and after a traumatic injury.

Bone contains nearly all calcium, most of the phosphate and much of the magnesium of the body. The maintenance of healthy bones requires a constant bone remodelling (bone metabolism) throughout life, which enables the bone to repair damage and adjust strength. During bone remodelling, old or damaged bone is removed from the skeleton by specialised bone resorbing cells known as osteoclasts in a process called bone resorption and the subsequent replacement of new bone tissue is formed by other specialised cells called osteoblasts in a process called ossification or bone formation. The concentration of calcium, phosphate and magnesium in plasma depend on the net effect of the following processes: bone resorption, bone formation, intestinal absorption of vitamins and minerals and renal excretion of minerals. Parathyroid hormone and vitamin D are the principal hormones regulating these processes.
Bone diseases are disorders and conditions where an imbalance in the bone resorption and formation occurs, lead to abnormal bone remodelling. Our bones naturally lose density due to the aging process; however, other factors, including hormonal changes, nutritional deficiencies, and changes in physical activity, drugs, and secondary diseases, can lead to the development of bone disorders in both women and men. Osteoporosis is one of the most prevalent metabolic bone diseases in adults.
Healthy bones are constantly being remodelled in a process that involves minerals and the action of hormones such as vitamin D and parathyroid hormone. Their adequate balance and functions are crucial for the efficient and lifelong execution of bone functions. The main functions of bone are: support and provision of sites of attachment for muscles, protection of vital organs, and metabolically functioning as an organ with major reserves of calcium, phosphate and magnesium.

Tests on blood 

Unless you are diabetic, we recommend that you fast (not eat any food) for at least 8-10 hours. The best time for the blood sample to be taken is between 7 a.m. and 10 a.m. Do drink water while fasting and continue with any prescribed medications following your doctor instructions. Ideally, you should be on a stable diet for two weeks prior to the taking of the blood sample.

Please note that taking certain medications that can affect the test results, such as lithium, antacids, diuretics, and vitamin D supplements, among others. If you have any question, contact us and we will let you know how to prepare for your blood tests.

A small amount of blood will be drawn by trained staff from a vein in your arm using a needle. The procedure is quick and easy. Rarely, some people may feel faint or dizzy while having the blood taken and you may need to lie down to help you to feel better. The procedure may cause some minor discomfort and a small bruise may develop in the area where the needle was inserted. Press over the site where the needle was inserted, keeping your arm straight to reduce likelihood of bruise formation. If you develop redness or inflammation in the same area, seek your doctor for advice.

A laboratory test result is produced after a scientific analysis done on a sample to assess an individual health status.

An abnormal finding may (but not necessarily) indicate a problem that needs to be addressed. We recommend that any abnormal result should promptly be consulted with your GP. Your doctor will evaluate the test results in the context of an overall clinical picture that takes into consideration your age, gender, ethnicity, family history, signs, symptoms, etc.

If you want to learn more how the results of your laboratory test help your doctor in understanding your health status, and in providing you with the right treatment; check, a public resource on lab tests that is produced by AACC, a global scientific and medical professional organization dedicated to clinical laboratory science and its application to healthcare.You can also visit for information about health conditions. Please note that this information should not be a substitute for a consultation with your doctor.

Please contact us, we will be happy to clarify any questions pertaining to your test results.

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Approved by Irish Life Health

Check with your provider if our outpatient service is covered under your plan.



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Approved by Irish Life Health.
Check with your provider if our outpatient service is covered under your plan.